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外国人眼中的“中国白”|考古眼光中的“中国白” (四)——何翠媚

来源: 发布: 时间:2021/10/8 16:52:24 浏览:

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由柯玫瑰(Rose Kerr)、约翰•盖尔(John Ayers)所著《中国白——德化白瓷》(Blanc de Chine—porcelain from Dehua)于2002年经新加坡亚洲文明博物馆出版,是继唐纳利《中国白——福建德化瓷》之后的一本专门研究德化白瓷的专著,影响甚为深远。

该书收录的都为国外研究德化白瓷的知名学者所撰写德化白瓷研究资料。包括柯玫瑰的“德化器物款识介绍”,海蒂(Heidi Tan)的“鉴赏家探访”,约翰•盖尔的“中国白的影响”,何翠媚(Chuimei Ho)的“考古眼光中的中国白”,郭勒逊(Kenson Kwok)的“德化雕塑结构的一点看法”, 埃娃•施特勒伯(Eva Strober)的“德累斯顿的斯特朗大帝收藏的德化瓷”,以及附录介绍等七个部分,从不同角度介绍了德化白瓷。与此同时,该书收录的160件德化窑精品,为Hickley家藏,后捐赠给新加坡亚洲文明博物馆,是了解、品鉴、研究德化白瓷不可多得的艺术精品。

本栏目将定期精选出相关代表性文章进行翻译,以飨读者。然而,由于作者水平的局限,翻译过程中难免有所错漏,不足之处敬请各位读者提出宝贵意见。

Blanc de Chine in archaeological perspective:

a tribute to Donnelly by Chuimei Ho

考古眼光中的“中国白” (四)——何翠媚

(翻译:孙延燕)

When we turn our attention to Asia. we have information that was not available to Donnelly. In the last 20 years, a corpus of valuable data from both land and underwater archaeology has revealed details of the export and dating of particular ware types. The recent ship wreck data indicates that before engaging the European market convincingly in the eighteenth century, blanc de Chine first had a rather small but sophisticated clientele in other parts of Asia. The sensational Hatcher cargo, for instance, is important for the study of early blanc de Chine trade. The cargo, which was believed to have sunk soon after 1643, included 18 blanc de Chine utensils among thousands of blue-and-white wares. These 18 pieces were tripod-censers, beakers, cups, stem cups, ewers in human ape, and tea or wine pots. Figurines of immortals were noticeably missing. As some of the cargo was better suited for Asian than European clientele, and because the ship was primarily of Asian construction, the cargo was recognised as intended for the Asian market. The wreck contained the first archeological blanc de Chine found outside China, evidence that an Asian market for this ware existed before a European one.

当我们把注意力转向亚洲,我们有唐纳利没有的信息。在过去的20年里,来自陆地和水下考古学的大量有价值的数据揭示了特定陶器类型的输出细节和年代。最近的沉船事故数据表明,在18世纪令人信服地进入欧洲市场之前,中国白首先在亚洲其他地区拥有一个规模较小但经验丰富的客户群。例如,耸人听闻的哈彻号货物,对于研究早期的中国白贸易是很重要的。这批在1643年后不久沉没的货物,在数千件青花瓷器中包括了18件白瓷器皿。这18件是三脚架香炉、烧杯、杯子、杯具、人猿的水壶、茶壶或酒壶。神仙俑显然不见了。由于一些货物更适合亚洲客户而不是欧洲客户,而且由于该船主要是亚洲建造的,因此货物被认为是面向亚洲市场的。沉船上发现了第一批在中国境外发现的中国白考古瓷器,证明这种瓷器在欧洲市场之前就已经有了亚洲市场。

If indeed the Hatcher cargo was for Asians, it reveals at least three things about Its consumers. First, this group of blanc de Chine admirers demonstrated a taste distinctively different from that of Europeans half a century later. The items could have been suitable for a Chinese scholars desk, or for wine or tea drinking among a sophisticated group. Second the few pieces of blanc de Chine ware in the cargo indicate a limited market. Third, the question of whether the pieces were in fact merchandise to be sold or personal items of the blane de Chine pieces were a mixed assortment with few identical items. This raises the crew. If the answer is the latter, what kind of social background could their owners have come from?

如果哈彻号的货物真的是针对亚洲人的,那么它至少提供了其购买者的三个方面信息。首先,这群中国白的崇拜者表现出了与半个世纪后欧洲人截然不同的品味。这些物品可能是中国人的文玩雅具,也可能是不同群体的葡萄酒杯或茶杯。第二,货物中仅有的几件瓷器表明有限的市场。第三,这些作品究竟是要出售的商品,还是船员的私人物品。如果答案是后者,他们的主人可能来自什么样的社会背景?

The kind of tripod-censers recovered from the Hatcher Junk were probably also used by Muslims in Southeast Asia. The unusual three-legged plece at the Muzium Negara in Kuala Lumpur argues for a Muslim market for blanc de Chine. The censer might have been one of a three-piece set. It must have been specially commis- sioned because of the Arabic script carved on it before firing. Other distinctive blanc de Chine shapes for the Asian market include kendi. One kendi was recovered from Banten, West Java.

从哈彻号舢板中找到的那种三脚架香炉可能也被东南亚的穆斯林使用。在吉隆坡的马来西亚国家博物馆的这件不同寻常的三脚香炉为中国白争夺了穆斯林的市场。香炉可能是三件套中的一件。它在烧制前刻有阿拉伯文字,因此它一定是经过特别定制的。亚洲市场上其他独特的中国白瓷器包括军持。从西爪哇省万丹市发现了一个军持。

The excellent records of the Dagh-registers of the Dutch East Indies Company tell us Zhangzhou(Chang Chou)was one of the ports from which blanc de Chine ware was exported. In 1680, a sailing vessel from that port arrived at Bantam in Java with 23 wicker work cases of white figurines and 40 covered pots. Given the proximity of Zhangzhou to Dehua, Volker is probably right in suggesting that this white porcelain was blanc de Chine ware. As the Zhangzhou vessel was not VOC commissioned, it is reasonable to assume that the cargo was likely meant for sale to residents in Java

荷兰东印度群岛公司Dagh登记处的杰出记录告诉我们漳州(长州)是中国白瓷其中的一个出口港ロ。1680年,一艘帆船从该港口抵达爪哇的班塔姆,船上有23个柳条箱的白色雕像和40个有盖的罐子。考虑到漳州离德化很近,沃尔克认为这种白色瓷器是中国白可能是正确的。由于漳州船没有荷兰东印度群岛公司(简称VOC)授权,因此可以合理地假设货物很可能是注定要出口给爪哇居民的。

In 1690 another Asian trading ship met its fate off the coast of South Vietnam near the seaport of Vung Tau. This ship also carried mainly Chinese blue-and-white ware and a smaller proportion of blanc de Chine pieces, which nonetheless outnumbered the Dehua white ware on the Hatcher Junk. It included 44 figurines of immortals, 551 covered boxes, 1, 108 cups, 473 saucer-dishes, 122 dishes, 698 bowls and 273 spoons of different sizes and shapes. Some of these could have been made at Lingdou kiln. It is obvious that by the end of the seventeenth century the blanc de Chine trade in Southeast Asia was in full swing, compared to the limited export to Europe at this time.

1690年,另一艘亚洲商船在越南南部靠近头顿海港的海域遭遇厄运。这艘船也主要运载中国的青花瓷和较小比例的中国白,尽管如此,这一数量仍超过了哈彻号德化白瓷。它包括44个神像,551个有盖的盒子,118个杯子,473个碟子,122个盘子,698个碗和273个不同大小和形状的勺子,其中一些可能是在岭兜制作的。很明显,到了十七世纪底,南洋的中国白贸易正处于全盛时期,相比之下,此时对欧洲的出口有限。

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